Serious (And Ignored) Vaccine Risk in [Market-Ticker-Nad]
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The common -- and safe -- vaccines given to people all work on the same basic principle: You take a virus, either attenuate it by modifying it so it cannot replicate well in a human cell (often by passing it through other animal cells) or kill it outright and then give it to the person or animal to be protected. The recipient's immune system believes it is being attacked by the original disease and mounts an immune response.
But -- there is no, or only a very weak disease.
What you're left with is the same outcome you'd have from natural infection if you were to survive it in terms of immunity. The immune "memory", in B and T cells, along with antibodies, looks identical -- or very close to identical -- as if you got the actual disease and suffered through it.
Qualifying these vaccines is primarily a process of making sure that they do not revert to their virulent form in the body, a risk that can happen with an attenuated vaccine product. These vaccines produce "sterilizing" immunity in the recipient -- that is, you cannot get the infection again as your immune system will interdict the bug before replication can take place to any material degree, and thus if exposed later you will never have a material viral titer. Without a viral titer you cannot shed anything and thus you also can't give the infection to someone else.